By Ussama Makdisi

Targeting Ottoman Lebanon, Ussama Makdisi indicates how sectarianism was once a manifestation of modernity that transcended the actual obstacles of a specific state. His learn demanding situations those that have considered sectarian violence as an Islamic reaction to westernization or just as a manufactured from social and monetary inequities between spiritual teams. The non secular violence of the 19th century, which culminated in sectarian mobilizations and massacres in 1860, used to be a fancy, multilayered, subaltern expression of modernization, he says, no longer a primordial response to it. Makdisi argues that sectarianism represented a planned mobilization of spiritual identities for political and social reasons. The Ottoman reform circulate introduced in 1839 and the growing to be ecu presence within the center East contributed to the disintegration of the normal Lebanese social order dependent on a hierarchy that bridged spiritual variations. Makdisi highlights how ecu colonialism and Orientalism, with their emphasis on Christian salvation and Islamic despotism, and Ottoman and native nationalisms each one created and used narratives of sectarianism as foils to their very own visions of modernity and to their very own tasks of colonial, imperial, and nationwide improvement. Makdisi's ebook is critical to our figuring out of Lebanese society this day, however it additionally makes an important contribution to the dialogue of the significance of non secular discourse within the formation and dissolution of social and nationwide identities within the sleek international.

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Extra info for The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History, and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon

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42 Justice was administered with his “compassion,” and in the mosques of the land Friday prayers were said in his name. He granted equity without equality. The notables and the villagers constantly sparred over the significance of the Sultan’s name: taxes were levied in his name, and petitions were addressed to his exalted throne. The Sultan’s name was an icon that all subjects believed in, a symbol they could all share, and a recourse beyond local authority. It was also the apex of a secular loyalty that bound all his subjects.

Even a cursory reading of the local chronicles reveals the tragedies and triumphs that beset every notable family. ” 23 Even then, the power of the Shihabs was always heavily dependent on local alliances and imperial patronage networks. ” 25 Just as a name could be “obliterated,” a name could, on rare occasion, also be elevated by the Shihab emir after a particular instance of loyalty. 6 In either case, for better or worse, title and rank depended ultimately on loyalty to the hierarchy, and they were bestowed rather than acquired.

It was also the apex of a secular loyalty that bound all his subjects. knowledge and power All subjects knew they must be loyal to the Sultan.

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The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History, and by Ussama Makdisi
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