By Ryan Gingeras

The cave in of the Ottoman Empire was once under no circumstances a unique occasion. After 600 years of ruling over the peoples of North Africa, the Balkans and center East, the loss of life throes of sultanate encompassed a sequence of wars, insurrections, and revolutions spanning the early 20th century. This quantity contains a complete accounting of the political, financial, social, and overseas forces that introduced about Read more...


After 600 years of ruling over the peoples of North Africa, the Balkans and heart East, the cave in of the Ottoman Empire encompassed a chain of wars, insurrections, and revolutions Read more...

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Extra info for Fall of the sultanate. The Great War and the end of the Ottoman Empire 1908-1922

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In the absence of reliable officers capable of imposing law and order in the provinces, Istanbul restored some of the provincial families disenfranchised after Mahmud II’s campaign against the empire’s ayan class. Some ayan families, such as the Kozanoğlu clan of Adana, managed to continue their rule over their small informal fiefdoms well into the twentieth century. Corruption and incompetence was rife at all levels of the government despite the best efforts and genuine intentions of reformers in the capital.

As the new commander of the empire’s Third Army (which presided over much of the Ottoman Balkans), Mahmud Şevket remained an ally of the young revolutionaries who held sway over the forthcoming parliament. When Abdülhamid II staged a countercoup against the newly established assembly in March 1909, he permitted units drawn from his Third Army to advance on the capital and restore the body’s authority. Abdülhamid II’s removal from power (an act Mahmud personally did not seek nor support) created even deeper bonds between Şevket and the Young Turk officers who formed the backbone of the empire’s new governing party, the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP).

While never formally joining the CUP, he continued to serve the interests of the revolutionaries as Minister of War in 1910. His relationship with the CUP did, however, possess limits. After a series of clashes with junior Young Turk officers, Mahmud Şevket resigned from his post under charges of fiscal mismanagement. Events beyond his control, however, pushed him once again into making peace with his erstwhile allies from the Balkans. In January 1913, a body of CUP officers stormed the Sublime Porte, the primary offices of the Ottoman bureaucracy, killing Nazim Pasha, his successor as Minister of War, and forcing the sitting grand vizier, Kamil Pasha, to resign at gunpoint.

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Fall of the sultanate. The Great War and the end of the by Ryan Gingeras
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