By C.J. Hacket
This publieation summarizes an preliminary unpublished record (1971) on diagnostie eriteria in dry bones. The correct learn used to be made in 22 medieal museums in Europe, England and Seotland among 1966 and 1969. approximately 670 dry bones have been reeorded through over 2000 pictures. Emphasis is plaeed on ehanges for whieh diagnostie eriteria are proposed instead of on these for whieh diagnostie difficulties stay. The ehanges studied have been maeroseopieal no longer mieroseopieal. this isn't areport at the pathological ehanges in dry bones in medieal museums, yet a press release on "Diagnostic eriteria of syphilis in dry bones" and of eertain different general ehanges, and their eauses, whieh are wanted for differential analysis. 'Syphilis' as used the following often refers both to the 'treponematoses' whieh inc1udes yaws and treponarid. it's meant as a eomprehensive advisor for archaeologists and anthro pologists, and as an device of preeision for osteo-arehaeologists. it's not a guide of pathology, even supposing pathologists can be attracted to this revival of the demise ability of analysis of illness in dry bones. All reeords, written, picture graphie and radiographie, including the preliminary 120,000 note document, were deposited within the division of Morbid Anatomy, Institute of Orthopaedies, London, the place they are going to be on hand for research. Abrief introduetion to this research has been released (Haekett, 1975). i want specifically to thank the President of the Heidelberger Akade mie der Wissenschaften, and Doktor H. Gotze of Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, for the publieation of this monograph.
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Extra resources for Diagnostic Criteria of Syphilis, Yaws and Treponarid (Treponematoses) and of Some Other Diseases in Dry Bones: For Use in Osteo-Archaeology
These 85 are alliabelled syphilis (Table 3, p. 32). 6. Serpiginous Cauitation (Table 3, p. 32). The earliest stage, serplgmous cauitation (Fig. C), starts as an irregular confluence in the centre of a large area (3-4 cm) of c1ustered pits. This produces an irregular (serpiginous) pattern of openings into confluent superficial cavities. The change may extend over a large area (5-10 cm) by peripheral spread of pitting and further superficial cavitation (Fig. 7). The openings of these cavities have sharp irregular margins and concave walls.
This is the nodular cauitation (Fig. C) and may cover areas of 5-10 cm as it follows the extension of the serpiginous cavitation. 8. Caries Sicca (Table 3, p. 32). With further healing the nodules become larger (5-10 mm) and encroach upon the spaces between them. Many nodules press against each other or remain separated only by narrow spiky spaces; these are the stellate depressions of cartes sicca (Fig. C), (Virchow, 1858 and 1896) (Fig. 9). This is best iIIustrated by Fig. 1 of Williams (1932) of a specimen (No.
5), thus they may be re garded as a diagnostic criterion of syphilis. The superficial eroded sequestrum in one of these depressions is associated with caries sicca sequence changes. This seems to indicate a possible origin of these sequestra from superficial confluence of clustered pits, but these sequestra are more superficial than are confluent clustered pits. In summary it may be said discrete round and confluent, thus crenated, depressions wilh rolled brushed perhaps raised margins and smooth or granular bases may be regarded as diagnostic criteria of syphilis.
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