By Daniela Huber (auth.)
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Additional info for Democracy Promotion and Foreign Policy: Identity and Interests in US, EU and Non-Western Democracies
This could lead to international recognition of the democratic character and acceptance into the ‘club of democracies’ and so foster the self-perception of being democratic. This could be called the imitation mechanism. Third, if democracy is positively contested at home, that is, if there is a debate as to how to enhance one’s own democracy, this provides an incentive for politicians to promote democracy abroad in order to project a democratic image and foster a common identity. This would apply specifically if reform Why Is Democracy Promoted?
The three actors are also comparable in terms of authority, the ‘legal competence to act’ (Caporaso and Jupille 1998, 214). Since the Maastricht Treaty the EU has developed complex but stable rules and mechanisms for decision-making in foreign policy (Keukeleire and Delreux 2014). Thus also in terms of authority the EU is comparable to the United States and Turkey. Autonomy is ‘distinctiveness, and to some extent independence from other actors, particularly state actors’ (Caporaso and Jupille 1998, 217).
Mark Peceny’s study on US military interventions for democracy contradicts this theory in two respects: first, he finds instances of US democracy promotion before and during the Cold War, that is, under multi- and bipolarity, and argues, secondly, that higher threats also hinder offensive democracy promotion (Peceny 1999, 10). What might be missing in the realist discussion of democracy promotion is a more rigorous elaboration of democracy promotion and its relation to the security interest of democracies which will be pursued later on in this chapter.
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