By Professor Donald L. Horowitz

After the autumn of its authoritarian regime in 1998, Indonesia pursued an strange process democratization. It was once insider-dominated and gradualist, and it concerned loose elections earlier than a long means of constitutional reform. on the finish of the method, Indonesia's amended structure was once basically a brand new and carefully democratic rfile. by means of continuing as they did, the Indonesians prevented the clash that may have arisen among adherents of the outdated structure and proponents of radical, rapid reform. sluggish reform additionally made attainable the adoption of associations that preserved pluralism and driven politics towards the guts. The ensuing democracy has a few favourite flaws, principally as a result of the method selected, yet is a greater final result than the main most likely choices. Donald L. Horowitz files the choices that gave upward thrust to this particular constitutional technique. He then strains the consequences of the hot associations on Indonesian politics and discusses their shortcomings in addition to their achievements in steerage Indonesia clear of the risks of polarization and violence, the entire whereas putting the Indonesian tale within the context of comparative adventure with constitutional layout and intergroup clash.

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Deadlock in the Konstituante had been signaled by taking votes on contested issues on which neither side could muster the requisite two-thirds of the body. Two-thirds were also required for the post-1999 changes, but proceeding by consensus meant there were no votes that could miss the two-thirds mark, so no inference of stalemate could be drawn. Needless to say, not taking votes is not the same as not knowing where the votes are and being able to count them. Officially recognized party factions gave reliable and detailed indications of who supported what at any given moment, hence what was feasible to enact and what needed to be postponed because of disagreement.

553. N. 2:83, 2:101 (two members of PAH I, one from PDI-P, one from PPP). ” Harold Crouch, Political Reform in Indonesia after Soeharto (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2010), p. 54. 82 In all of these ways, the intramural location, gradual method, and choice of institutions that characterized the reform process had abiding sources in unhappy prior political experience. 83 We shall return to the influence of historical antecedents and memories at various points when they affected decision making.

32 The Thai democratic constitution of 1997 was produced by an indirectly elected Constitution Drafting Committee consisting of a majority of provincial representatives and a minority of experts and former public officials. 33 As these cases show, sometimes elections precede reforms, sometimes not; sometimes constitution drafters are elected, sometimes not; sometimes a referendum is mandatory, sometimes not. All that can be said definitively is that public approval at some stage of constitutional reform is commonly seen as a hallmark of legitimacy.

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Constitutional Change and Democracy in Indonesia by Professor Donald L. Horowitz
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