By R. Droh (auth.), Dr. med. Roland Droh, Dr. med. Ralph Spintge (eds.)

This quantity includes the lectures and dialogue papers provided on the II. In­ ternational Symposium on strategies in administration, know-how and Phar­ macology hung on 26-28 may well 1984 in Liidenscheid. This symposium delt with fur­ ther advancements within the region of the closed-circuit method; non-invasive mea­ surement and tracking structures; new facets of cardiovascular and pulmonary body structure; oxygen-transporting elements; and specific questions in pharma­ cology. the aim of this assembly used to be to permit a mutual foreign alternate of stories on attention-grabbing new advancements, really as those relate to the closed-circuit procedure, and the encouragement of additional medical advancements. It has to be made transparent that the large-scale creation of the closed-circuit sys­ tem should be the get together of thoroughly new caliber criteria either in anesthesia and in all similar technological sectors, mixed with the top calls for by way of precision and measuring concepts. the normal and nonetheless rather crude scientific anesthetic strategies should make means for a lot extra phys­ iological, micromolecular precision thoughts, with a view to evaluate with our current tools particularly within the comparable means as a microelectrode to a spear and may permit new degrees of accomplishment in anesthesiology. All our initiatives might want to be rethought and carefully understood from those features. a few anesthesists, physiologists and engineers already see the closed-circuit method as a problem, whereas for others the program will nonetheless suggest loads of paintings and creativity be­ fore the issues are ultimately solved within the future.

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Anesthetist 26:514-517 2. Lin CY, Mostert JW, Benson DW (1980) Closed circle systems. A new direction in the practice of anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 24:354-361 3. Lin CY (1982) Nitrous oxide uptake in adults (abstract). Anesthesiology 57:S372 4. Severinghaus JW (1954) Rate of uptake of nitrous oxide in man. J Clin Invest 33:11831189 5. Lowe HJ (1981) The anesthetic continuum. In: Aldrete JA, Lowe HJ, Virtue RW (eds) Low flow and closed system anesthesia. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp 11-37 6.

In the near future we may expect to obtain fast oxygen monitors which give "oxygrams" resembling reverse capno46 grams. Measurement of nitrous oxide in routine clinical practice is also not far away. The real necessity of using nitrous oxide is a matter of dispute; air enriched with oxygen certainly makes things easier in the closed circuit. Adjustable, sensitive alarms aid the smooth control of the system. This approach is applicable to any existing low-flow anaesthesia system. Feedback Control Approach.

Br J Anaesth 53:471-477 6. Barton F, Nunn JF (1975) Totally closed circuit nitrous oxide-oxygen anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 47:350-357 7. Lowe HJ, Ernst EA (1981) The quantitative practice of anesthesia: use of closed circuit. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore 45 Integrated Monitoring of Closed-Circuit Anaesthesia M. Paloheimo A closed circuit is a sophisticated version of a semiclosed anaesthesia system; the overflow valve is closed, all possible leaks (including the endotracheal cuff) are minimized, and composition and mass flow of fresh gas are adjusted to maintain desired fractions of gases as well as to keep the circuit volume within acceptable limits.

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Closed-Circuit System and Other Innovations in Anaesthesia by R. Droh (auth.), Dr. med. Roland Droh, Dr. med. Ralph
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