By D. G. Harnden (auth.), Prof. Dr. Peter Bannasch (eds.)
A huge physique of knowledge approximately attainable explanations of melanoma has been ac cumulated via either medical adventure in guy and observations in animal experiments. there's basic contract that during such a lot circumstances melanoma is because of exogenous components, albeit the genetic disposition can also play an impor tant half. 3 major different types of exogenous threat components were iden tified, particularly chemical compounds, radiation, and viruses. In precept, it may be attainable to avoid melanoma through getting rid of such hazard elements. even though, regardless of the quickly transforming into variety of good tested hazard elements, many shortcomings in our figuring out of the motives of human melanoma and within the creation of powerful preventive measures are obvious. as well as visible gaps in our clinical wisdom, inadequacies in own life-style, irresponsible dealing with of environmental contaminants, and in a few parts additionally deficiencies in political judgements heavily impede the elimina tion of probability components for melanoma. It used to be this history which triggered the Committee coordinating melanoma learn within the GroBforschungseinrichtungen within the Federal Re public of Germany to prepare a convention on techniques for the Elimina tion of melanoma hazards. The convention was once held in Heidelberg in June 1986. In components which looked to be specially pertinent to public healthiness, writer itative audio system awarded the state-of-the-art and ready the root for the dialogue. either the shows of the audio system and the summaries of the discussions are contained during this book.
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Additional info for Cancer Risks: Strategies for Elimination
1980), which are not sufficiently present in the S9 fraction. A consequence of insufficient cofactor availability in the S9 fraction is illustrated in Fig. 3. Chlorodinitrobenzene (CDNB) is a direct mutagen not requiring metabolic activation. It is metabolically inactivated by glutathione conjugation. This enzyme reaction is catalyzed by glutathione-S transferases present in the S9 fraction and the cofactor glutathione. When CDNB is incubated with Salmonella typhimurium strains to detect its mutagenicity without S9, a sharp increase in the mutation rate is observed.
Specificity of Methods for Detecting DNA Damage Many groups of investigators use hepatocytes for in vitro testing of chemicals. Sophisticated analytical methods permit study of a wide variety of mechanisms leading to cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. The use of hepatocytes to investigate cytotoxic mechanisms of action has been reviewed by our group (Schwarz and Greim 1981). Effects of chemicals on membranes, on the synthesis of proteins, RNA and DNA, on energy supply and many other parameters have been studied in isolated hepatocytes.
Since the majority of chemicals causing toxic effects in mammals require metabolic activation, a metabolically active system has to be added. Mostly, a liver microsomal preparation, such as the S9 fraction (postmitochondrial supernatant; 34 H. Greim et al. Ames et al. 1975; McCann and Ames 1976; McCann et al. 1975) or the microsomal fraction is used (Malling 1971; Popper et al. 1973; Czygan et al. 1973). In some cases, feeder cells (irradiated cells with inactive genetic systems with high metabolic activities) have been added (Marquardt and Heidelberger 1972).
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