By Paul Bloom & Barbara L. Finlay (Editors)

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Additional resources for Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, February 2010

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Humans have been characterized as cooperative breeders, a reproductive strategy in which mothers routinely rely on the help of nonparental individuals to raise young. Because allomothers divert energy and resources to another’s reproductive success, it presents an evolutionary puzzle. In addressing this, much of the cooperative breeding literature has centered on the question of why helpers help. C&H evaluate grandparenting 30 BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES (2010) 33:1 and its altruistic basis in industrialized populations.

Human biology searches for universal behaviors and their variety. These behaviors have emerged over the course of evolution because they had an advantage for survival and reproduction. Human behaviors are influenced by emotions and shaped by the social and cultural environment in which we grow up. We learn from an early age what is expected from grandparents and their duties. This means that evolution affects human behavior in terms of both inner motivations and cultural learning. This is because evolution also shapes cultural systems.

The averages for rich countries (Japan, United States, Sweden, Finland) and for poor countries (Kenya, Philippines, Indonesia, and India) are taken from the international collaborative National Transfer Accounts project Figure 1 (Lee). org. Kung from Howell (in press). ), and is averaged across males and females. Labor income includes wages and salaries, fringe benefits, and labor’s share of self-employment income, including unpaid family labor (see Lee et al. 2008). For hunter-gatherer groups, labor income is food calories acquired (see Kaplan 1994; Howell, in press).

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, February by Paul Bloom & Barbara L. Finlay (Editors)
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