By Dirk Berg-Schlosser, Jeremy Mitchell
Authoritarianism and Democracy in Europe, 1919-39 deals a finished research of the survival or breakdown of democracy in interwar Europe. The members discover components similar to the ancient, social-structural and political-cultural backgrounds of the guidelines that ecu international locations tried to enforce to counter the area fiscal difficulty of 1929. The research serves as a tremendous backdrop for the evaluate of present democratic advancements in former communist Europe and highlights a few of the difficulties and hazards keen on the transition procedure.
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Extra info for Authoritarianism and Democracy in Europe, 1919-39: Comparative Analyses
Although it was the ideological opposite of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, the conservative Horthy government (which took power in November 1919) retained Kun’s irredentist tactics, even if it no longer tried to fulfil them militarily. ‘Nem, Nem, Soha’ (‘No, No, Never’) was the ritualistic slogan of frequent political rallies called to denounce Hungary’s truncated post-war borders (Kitchen 1988: 116). Furthermore, flags were flown at half-mast on the borders to demonstrate Hungary’s territorial claims.
In this way the war brought to the European states their first experiences of a state controlled economy. Although after the war state control and regulation was abolished, in a few states the process lasted many years, but the results proved to be highly unsatisfactory. Thus, due to various factors the equilibrium of the European economic system was destroyed. The most immediate symptom of the breakdown was the financial chaos in individual countries and in international relations. During the war all the European states, including the neutrals, had experienced inflation.
Czech leaders, for example, began demanding (and ultimately received) independence while Germans of the ex-Habsburg empire found themselves largely concentrated into the new republic of Austria in which pan-German sentiment was dominant from the outset (Simon 1978; Hoor 1966). Nationalism became the explicit raison d’être of the East European states that were either republics, or, if still officially kingdoms, then headed by monarchs expected to serve national not dynastic interests. qxd 9/14/02 1:47 PM Page 25 Building Nations and Crafting Democracies 25 How was the nation to be defined?
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