By Stefan Ihrig
Early in his occupation, Adolf Hitler took notion from Benito Mussolini, his senior colleague in fascism—this truth is celebrated. yet an both vital function version for Hitler and the Nazis has been virtually completely ignored: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founding father of smooth Turkey. Stefan Ihrig’s compelling presentation of this untold tale delivers to rewrite our figuring out of the roots of Nazi ideology and strategy.
Hitler used to be deeply attracted to Turkish affairs after 1919. He not just favorite but in addition sought to mimic Atatürk’s radical building of a brand new country from the ashes of defeat in global struggle I. Hitler and the Nazis watched heavily as Atatürk defied the Western powers to grab executive, they usually modeled the Munich Putsch to a wide measure on Atatürk’s uprising in Ankara. Hitler later remarked that during the political aftermath of the nice conflict, Atatürk was once his grasp, he and Mussolini his students.
This was once no fading fascination. because the Nazis struggled throughout the Twenties, Atatürk remained Hitler’s “star within the darkness,” his idea for remaking Germany alongside nationalist, secular, totalitarian, and ethnically particular strains. Nor did it get away Hitler’s realize how ruthlessly Turkish governments had handled Armenian and Greek minorities, whom influential Nazis at once in comparison with German Jews. the hot Turkey, or no less than these points of it that the Nazis selected to work out, grew to become a version for Hitler’s plans and desires within the years major as much as the invasion of Poland.
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Additional resources for Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination
Something important was happening in Anatolia, and most German nationalist papers were sure of it from the beginning. But what it was exactly, they did not know, at least not in the first six or seven months of the Turkish War of Independence. Initially the interpretations of the German press were somewhat contradictory, but it didn’t take long for them to become stabilized and self-confident. 24 Once established, the phrase quickly assumed iconic qualities; it needed no further qualification (such as “Turkish”), and for the various papers to speak just of the “nationalist movement” seemed to have sufficed for their readers to know what they were talking about, the Kemalists became the nationalist movement, par excellence, of the time.
As shown in the first three pictures, it was not through the deliberations of historians, diplomats, or politicians, but through “action,” that revision could be achieved, or “as the Turks did with Sèvres”—the Turk here, of course, depicted with sword in hand. ” As early as July 1919 the Weser Zeitung carried the article “Ex Oriente Lux . . ). The question mark in the article served only to underline “the incredible reversal of world history,” that today “enlightenment” and political progress were again originating in the East, in Ankara.
Strange that these so often ridiculed and supposedly degenerate Turks can be an example and a lesson to certain other people of how one has to do it in order to protect national honor and völkisch existence against harm. 116 Here is another typical example from the Deutsche Tageszeitung from 1921: The Turks were the only nation that, despite all the weaknesses, despite decades of warfare, found the strength and the idealism not to bend unconditionally to the destructive will of the Entente, but who instead took up their weapons yet again.
- Turkey and the West: Changing Political and Cultural by Metin Heper, Heinz Kramer, Ayse Oncu
- The Young Turks in Opposition (Studies in Middle Eastern by M. Sukru Hanioglu