By Chris Rowe

Written to hide the AQA heritage a degree Unit 2 specification (HIS2K), our scholar booklet presents a centred examine key occasions in Italy from 1922 to 1945 and permits scholars to achieve a better knowing of the interval and assessment the main matters.

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Extra info for AQA History AS Unit 2 A New Roman Empire? Mussolini's Italy, 1922-1945

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On 2 October 1 922, therefore, three weeks before the March on Rmne, Pius XI issued a circular letter to the hierarchy of the Church in Italy. The circular ordered the Catholic clergy to remain politically neutral and not to give open support to the Catholic PPI . This was an important sign that the papacy was ready to make a deal with the Fascists once they came to power. In January 1 923, Pius XI's Secretary of State, Cardinal Gasparri, had the first of a series of secret meetings with Mussolini.

For the Church, Mussolini seemed to be the man who could save Italy from the 'Bolshevik threat'. The Church hated and feared Fascism, but the Church hated and feared Communism a whole lot more. Anti-Communism was a particularly powerful influence on the thinking of the new Pope, Pius XI. Before his election to the papacy in February 1 922, Pius XI had witnessed the fighting in Warsaw when the Red Army invaded Poland during the civil war that followed the Bolshevik Revolution. Pius XI became almost fanatically anti-communist and this encouraged him to avoid open opposition to Mussolini.

Special elections were held in 1 929 to act as a referendu1n on the Lateran Pacts before they were ratified in parliament. The results showed a massive majority in favour. It was an important step towards being recognised as the legitin1ate ruler of Italy. ' The Lateran Pacts did not wipe away all the causes of conflict between Church and State. In 1 93 1 , Pius XI issued a papal encyclical denouncing the idea of a totalitarian state. Friction continued over fascist restrictions on Azione Cattolica.

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AQA History AS Unit 2 A New Roman Empire? Mussolini's Italy, by Chris Rowe
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