By Franck Courchamp

Allee results are (broadly) outlined as a decline in person health at low inhabitants dimension or density. they could lead to serious inhabitants thresholds under which populations crash to extinction. As such, they're very suitable to many conservation programmes, the place scientists and bosses are usually operating with populations which have been lowered to low densities or small numbers. there are a number of mechanisms which can create Allee results together with mating platforms, predation, environmental amendment, and social interactions. The abrupt and unexpected collapses of many exploited populations is only one representation of the necessity to deliver Allee results to the vanguard of conservation and administration innovations. Allee results in Ecology and Conservation offers a concise but authoritative assessment of the subject, collating and integrating a extensively dispersed literature from a variety of fields - marine and terrestrial, plant and animal, theoretical and empirical, educational and utilized. This available textual content, with its transparent and straightforward factors of either empirical observations and theoretical predications is very appropriate for pro and educational ecologists requiring an outline of the state of the art in Allee influence examine, in addition to for graduate scholars in inhabitants ecology and conservation biology. it's going to even be of relevance to a large readership of execs in conservation and administration requiring a concise precis of the subject.

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If predator attack comes from outside the group, the advantage to herding is particularly great because only those on the outside have any domain of danger at all (Hamilton 1971, Morton et al. 1994, Reluga and Viscido 2005). In theory this process should lead to a component Allee effect, because smaller groups have a higher ratio of edge to middle, and therefore a higher mean 'domain of danger' for their members. What evidence exists that this occurs in practice? g. marine insects; Foster and Traherne 1981, aphids; Turchin and Kareiva 1989, bark beetles; Aukema and Raffa 2004, spiders; Aviles and Tufino 1998 and monarch butterflies; Calvert et al.

For instance, while trees themselves obviously cannot form temporary aggregations, they may practice 'mast seeding'. This is where all the individuals across a region (which can be continental in scale; Koenig and Knops 1998) flower and set seed simultaneously in certain years, while in other years almost none flower. ), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia} and several species of tropical dipterocarps (Koenig and Ashley 2003, Koenig and Knops 2005) among others. g. g. a two- or three-year cycle in rowan; Satake et al.

This is of course still an Allee effect, but with a different mechanism. 1. There are some examples of demographic Allee effects via fertilization efficiency, although the evidence is mainly circumstantial. 3. Reproductive output of flowering plants as a function of population size. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius): green fruits per flower vs. number of individuals flowering (Hackney and McGraw 2001); Senecio integrifolius: proportion of seeds set vs. number of individuals flowering (Widen 1993); Banksia goodii: proportion of plants fertile vs.

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Allee Effects in Ecology and Conservation by Franck Courchamp
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