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Excitation–Contraction Coupling The sequence of events whereby an electrical stimulus in the sarcolemma leads to force generation in the myofilaments—the series of electrical, chemical, and mechanical events—is termed excitation–contraction coupling (ECC). 5 and the following discussion. An action potential in the sarcolemma is spread cell to cell via gap junctions. 5, a). 5, b). 5, c). These protein channels have T-shaped tubes in the interior that appear to be responsible for the release of calcium from the SR.

5, a). 5, b). 5, c). These protein channels have T-shaped tubes in the interior that appear to be responsible for the release of calcium from the SR. 5, d). 5, e), which is bound to another regulatory protein, tropomysin, on the thin filaments. The binding of calcium to troponin causes troponin to undergo a configurational change and pulls tropomyosin deeper into the groove along the actin strand and off of the active site on actin. This allows the myosin heads to bind to the exposed active site and the cross-bridge cycle is initiated, creating force generation and muscle shortening.

It represents blood flow for the entire cardiovascular system and reflects the ability of the heart to meet the body’s need for blood flow. Cardiac output is continually adjusted in response to changes in the cardiovascular system and in response to metabolic The Heart as a Pump needs of the body. For instance, during strenuous physical activity, cardiac output may increase more than fivefold . to meet the needs of the skeletal muscle for increased blood flow. Cardiac output (Q) is the product of stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle with each beat) and heart rate (the number of times the heart beats per minute), that is, .

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Advanced cardiovascular exercise physiology by Denise L. Smith
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